Four Ways To Avoid The Wrath Of The Borrow Checker

Ryan James Spencer

Maybe you've tried to write a simple program in Rust using references that would normally have taken less than an hour in C only to find yourself hours later still fussing about with the Rust compiler. If the borrow checker seems too restricting, here are four ways to loosen its grip.

Shared Ownership with Arc or Rc

Shared ownership is what most garbage collected languages support. This is done using a reference counting to objects in memory. We can mimic this in Rust with the wrapper type Rc. If you plan on reference counting in multi-threaded code you can use Arc where the A stands for Atomic.

Passing around an Rc means that if someone wants to jointly own the data, they can simply call clone on the Rc. This can be used as a drop-in replacement for places where you would borrow. Since these reference bumps count as new owners there is no borrowing at all. However, now that we can express shared ownership we also express a graph and graphs can have cycles (place where pointers loop back on themselves). A cycle in a graph means a value may never be deallocated, hence any self-referential structure poses a memory leak in our program. You can avoid this by having the pointer that "ties the knot" be a Weak pointer, which just means it's a non-owning pointer. A classic example is with a cache: you want to have entries in the cache to objects owned outside of the cache but you don't want the entries to count towards owning anything, otherwise keeping the cache around means keeping all of the memory! Also, Rc means you won't be able to take mutable borrows to the contents. This is easily remedied with the use of Rc<RefCell<T>> or even RwLock as we'll see later.

"When in doubt, reference count" is appropriate for places where laying out borrows and static lifetimes can be a pain and you want to get things passing quick. Places where you temporarily use an Rc can easily be targeted for borrows, so going back to fix things is clear. It may take some jiggling to get things into place but at least it can happen later down the line when you've got the breathing room, perhaps.

Rc can be particularly handy when you want to pass around function references in all sorts of ways. I used Rc extensively when porting a functional library from F# and Haskell directly into Rust and needed to easily get mutual recursion working quickly where using direct references or owned trait generics (e.g. F: Fn(A) -> B). I was later able to swap out the calls to references, which meant the ergonomics of the first call simplified to borrowing rather than wrapping the closures in question in Rcs.

Interior Mutability with Cell or RefCell

Exterior mutability (otherwise known as "inherited mutability") is great because it lets us know what things are actually changing beneath us. But sometimes clients don't care that some housekeeping state is changing underneath an operation. Perhaps we memoize the result of a function or manipulate a counter; in both of these cases, with exterior mutability, the function wrapping this action would have to be marked as mutable in some way, but if we want to keep things looking immutable on the surface, we can use Cell or RefCell instead.

To give a concrete example with memoization, you might have an expensive computation that you only want to do once and stash the result. As such, you have a function that only need to be mutable for this one time and can be immutable the rest of the time, so it doesn't make sense to have it marked as mut. Whatever the result type is, we can wrap that in a Cell or RefCell, depending on type: Cell is generally for things that support Copy and RefCell for the rest.

As RefCell uses dynamic borrow checking, it can panic if multiple mutable borrows are taken to the contents. Cell doesn't suffer from the same issue as it moves the values in and out of the internals of the Cell. As such, you may want to use something like RwLock if you are using an Rc<RefCell<T>> for multi-threaded code. Rc<RefCell<T>> is a common way to have a shared object, such as a HashMap, across several owners, but still mutate it. If one used Rc::get_mut one would need to mark the HashMap itself as mut.

Duplicate the data

Often people think that coming to Rust means programs should be completely devoid of clone but if you think about the language you may be coming from, whatever cloneing you are doing is in Rust probably pales in comparison.

You don't need to feel bound to a cloneless program by default. By abandoning this idea of a slim program from the outset and move towards something far more flexible. This generally means having duplicate formats of a data structure for varying purposes such as one be a game map where walls are located whereas another could be where someone has explored and yet another could contain items on each tile, etc. It can also mean having a duplicate you want to make changes to, leaving the original in-tact. This is more of the pure approach functional programming languages tend to take, but these languages can also make particular optimizations around immutability such as persistent data structures or "sharing" of data since everything is immutable by default. Here's an example that having some duplication of data might help. Perhaps you are trying to iterate over a collection and mutate it:

let mut xs = vec![1,2,3];
for x in xs.iter_mut() {
  if x % 2 == 0 {

In fact, this fails because we are borrowing to xs mutably twice! Once when we construct the iterator and another time when we push to the Vec. This is a classic "modify a data structure while you iterate over it" issue. However, we could easily do this:

let mux xs = vec![1,2,3];
let ys = xs.clone();
for x in xs.iter() {
  if x % 2 == 0 {

and hum along. In fact, we can keep these allocations to be short-lived, which may or may not be a performance issue but that can always be addressed later with proper profiling.

Single ownership and data pipelines

Lastly, you can try to go away from references entirely. Ownership is ideal for the kinds of problems best described as transforming values into other kinds of values.

Pipelines have stages or steps. Steps may build up required changes or apply earlier changesets. Pipelines are useful for a variety of solutions. Parsers, compilers, streaming analysis, and so on, however that isn't the end of it. Configuration could be seen as a stream that updates when new values are added. This isn't to say all pipelines are pull models but it is to say the solutions are broad.

If the use of borrows is for performance (want to ensure a large structure isn't memcpyd to a function), this type of optimization should already happen behind the scenes with move semantics; an owned type will typically get passed by memcpy for smaller sized objects and may be passed as a pointer for larger objects. This means that there is no mechanical difference for borrows besides marking the earlier variable as uninitialized meaning we always have no more than one owner of a value at a time.

When data flows through a pipeline, doing it all by mutable reference can achieve the same effect and the owner doesn't relinquish control. Although this might mean there are less allocations, it will mean each step of the way we are passing a pointer where copying an object might have actually been faster. This is also limiting in that we can only have on mutable borrow at a time! If callers allocate the objects they own and request they be transformed into a new shape, any number of threads could pass values into this pipeline for changes and be content that value changes will be isolated from one-another.


  1. Use Rc or Arc when you want to quickly get past tricky borrow issues and want to convert back to borrows possibly later in time to reap the benefits they offer
  2. Use Cell or RefCell when you have an API that doesn't need to expose mutability to a client
  3. Get comfortable with cloning data for multiple purposes to avoid conflicting borrows
  4. Don't borrow at all and create pipelines that pass ownership from step to step, producing a final, desired result