Idiomatic Argument Passing in Rust

Ryan James Spencer

If you're coming from a language that supports automatically taking references to arguments you may wonder why Rust can't do the same. Rust is all about giving developers a better control of the memory layout of the data in their programs. Since Rust has the notion of ownership, we don't have to worry about large objects being copied into a function when the arguments to a function are owned. Instead, they are moved (pass-by-move), and when I first started writing Rust I assumed the idiom was to always use owned types for function arguments. For clarity, we call something an "owned" typed when it isn't behind a reference (&). When an argument is behind a reference, we call that a "borrowed" type.

tl;dr Idiomatic Rust functions ought to borrow arguments unless a function needs to completely own an argument for ergonomics (say, method chaining) or allocation (the caller won't need to re-use the data, perhaps).

What's the case against owned types for function arguments as the default? All data in Rust must have an owner and that owner is a variable. Function arguments are variables. This means that when you give a function an owned type, you force a caller to give away ownership of the data it has allocated and probably wanted to use further down the line. If the function doesn't give back the value, it is lost to the caller, and the memory will be de-allocated at the end of the call's scope. Often callers do want to keep ownership of the values they pass into functions.

Immutable borrows let functions decide if they want to make selective allocations but that does mean a function may be allocating when the caller may want to know all allocations upfront. Owned types are a good fit for this as it is the caller's responsibility to allocate and give up ownership to the function for its use. Alternatively, if a function wants to make a change (mutate) an argument, it will be clear to the caller that data may change signaled by adding mut after the &. The common practice in C is to take pointers to non-primitive values. This is done so large objects don't get copied on each function call. However, with this approach of using raw pointers there is no way to clarify when a pointer is simply going to read data and when it is going to change it. With borrowed types in Rust we get this clarity at the syntactic level.

Idiomatic Rust functions borrow arguments unless it truly needs to own the values or they are primitives. Rust copies primitive values as they are part of the Copy trait. And this isn't to say you should never take owned arguments. The builder pattern explicitly takes ownership and gives it back at each method call, allowing us to chain together calls prior to a let assignment. If we used &mut self instead we'd need to first assign the value with let mut and make the calls separately.

This leads us to an interesting example: How would we write the inside of this function?

fn thin_air() -> &Vec<i32> {

We could try to allocate and take a reference to the allocation?

fn thin_air() -> &Vec<i32> {

But the borrow checker will refuse this program because our Vec only exists for the scope of thin_air and if we held a reference after the point it was dropped (its memory is freed) we'd be holding a pointer to garbage which is not safe to read or write to. Thus, if we want to return a borrowed type, we must also take a borrowed type or something that holds a borrowed type.

struct<'a> Data {
  integers: &'a Vec<i32>

fn thin_air(data: Data) -> &Vec<i32> {

To recap, Rust cares about memory safety and layout a fair amount and puts the work on the programmer to decide when references to arguments should be taken. Choosing immutable borrows by default means you won't cause any unintended consequences besides maybe some stray allocations. If you want to change the content that the caller owns and, hence, has allocated, switch to a mutable borrow. Lastly, if you know the caller won't need the argument anymore or if it wants to return an owned type in exchange of the passed in argument(s), the function ought to take ownership.