Why Are There Two Types of Strings In Rust?

Ryan James Spencer

Understanding the distinction between str and String can be painful if you need to get something done in Rust now. Rust doesn't sugar coat a lot of the ugliness and complexity of string handling from developers like other languages do and therefore helps in avoiding critical mistakes in the future.

By construction, both string types are valid UTF-8. This ensures there are no misbehaving strings in a program. A char is always four-bytes in Rust, but a string doesn't have to be composed of just four-byte chunks (that would be a UTF-32 encoding!). Being UTF-8 means that Strings can be encoded with variable-width code points, but you can iterate across the chars if you want without them being stored as such.

I'll cover the remaining difference between a String and a str through arrays, vecs, and slices.

An array is a contiguous chunk of memory where every element is the same type and adjacent. Arrays are, however, of a fixed size. If we want to actually grow or shrink an array we can turn to a Vec which is sometimes known as a "resizable array". This type abstracts away the housekeeping around allocating bigger or smaller arrays.

A vec grow as elements fill the backing memory near or at capacity. Without getting too distracted, a vec doesn't quite use an array but it does use a contiguous chunk of allocated memory that is similar to an array. Vecs also shrink to size if requested. The perks of ownership in Rust mean we, the vec, can do whatever we please to the data we own. We can always borrow owned things to temporarily read or change data. Why do you need more?

A slice is a view into a portion, or slice, of owned, contiguous memory. Whenever we have a slice we know we can access its elements safely without exposing any elements outside of the portion described by the slice and without copying any data over to a new owner. Slices give us the capacity to provide entire views of the original data rather than just a segment.

This relationship between an owned piece of data and a view into an owned piece of data is pervasive in Rust. Not every view may exclude access outside of its elements but it may provide a copy-free access such as an Entry for a BTreeMap or a Cursor to a File.

This is the same relationship between String and str. A String is the Vec and str is the slice. Since a slice is its own type, we can borrow it to change or read as we please. This is the difference between str and &str in that you will only ever manipulate a &str but it's technically a borrowed "string slice" str.

There is one bit of "magic" that Rust allows which is that taking a borrow to an owned string to a function will cast it to a string slice for you.

let s = String::new();
fn takes_a_string_slice(the_string: &str) {
  // reads the_string.

This is a convenience so that you don't have to describe the bounds as you would for an array or vector slice, a la &xs[0..n], although you can use the same syntax to create a slice into a portion of a string if you want.

As a final point, the backing store of a String is actually Vec; String just brings along the requirement that the contents are valid UTF-8 and heaps of convenience functions, as does &str. A slice is what we commonly call a "fat pointer" which consists of two machine words: one pointing to the start of data and another dictating the length. In this sense casting between a slice and back is cheap in the sense that we do not copy any data besides creating a fat pointer which is possibly reused it when we borrow.